Abduction = The movement of the limb away from the body; as in cocking a leg.
Adduction = The movement of a limb towards or beneath the body.
Anatomy = The science of the structure of the body.
Aponeurosis = A sheet of tendon-like tissue which connects some muscles to the parts which they move.
Appendicular skeleton = Comprises the bones of the forelimb, hindlimb and pelvis.
Arthrosis = A joint.
Articulation = The place of union or junction between two or more bones.
Atlas = The 1st cervical vertebra, articulating with the occipital bone of the skull.
Axial skeleton = Comprises the bones of the skull, vertebral column, tail, ribs and sternum.
Axis = The 2nd cervical vertebra.
Brachiocephalic = Describes a short, broad head.
Bursa = A small sac of fibrous tissue, lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid. It is situated between the moving parts of a joint in order to reduce friction.
Calcaneus = The point of the hock.
Cancellous bone = Porous or spongy; found in the ends of long bones and the core of short, flat and irregular bones.
Carnassials = The large 3-rooted teeth that are the upper 4th premolar and lower 1st molar in dogs, and the upper 3rd premolar and lower 1st molar in cats.
Cartilage = A specialised, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming most of the temporary skeleton in the embryo.
Caudal = Towards the tail.
Chondrocyte = A cartilage producing cell.
Clavicle = The collar bone.
Compact bone = The hard white substance found in the outer layer of all bones.
Condyle = A rounded eminence occurring at the end of some bones, and articulating with another bone.
Connective tissue = Tissues that develop from the mesenchyme and are formed of a matrix containing fibres and cells. Connective tissue is binding, supportive and acts as a transport system.
Cranial = Towards the head.
Deciduous teeth = Temporary or "baby teeth".
Dentine = The substance between the enamel and cement which forms the main bulk of a tooth.
Digits = The toes.
Distal = Away from the body.
Doliocephalic = Describes a long, narrow head.
Dorsal = Towards the back.
Enamel = The hard substance which coats the crown of the tooth.
Epicondyle = A protuberance on a long bone above its condyle usually acting as a site for soft tissue attachment.
Extrinsic = Originating externally. Extrinsic muscles originate away from the parts that they control.
Floating rib = The 13th rib.
Foramen = A channel through bone allowing the passage of blood and nerves; also known as a foramina.
Foramen magnum = The hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
Foramina = See foramen.
Fossa = A hole or depression within a bone.
Ground substance = The intracellular material found among the cells of connective tissue.
Haversian systems = Series of canals permeating bone enabling the transport of blood and lymph.
Intrinsic = Particular to, or contained within an organ.
Lacunae = Small cavities or depressions.
Lamellae = Thin layers, membranes or plates.
Lateral = Towards the side of the body.
Ligament = A band of fibrous tissue connecting bones forming a joint.
Linea alba ="The white line"; the area where the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles join at the ventral midline.
Malocclusion = An abnormality of dental development which causes an overlapping of the bite.
Medial = Towards the midline.
Meniscus = A semi-lunar cartilage present in the stifle joint.
Mesocephalic = Describes a normal shaped head.
Obturator foramen = The large hole in the hip bone.
Orbit = The bony cavity containing the eyeball.
Ossification = The development of bone; also known as osteogenesis.
Osteoblast = An immature bone cell.
Osteoclast = A large cell which breaks down and absorbs bone and callus.
Osteocyte = A bone cell.
Osteophyte = A small out-growth of bone.
Palmar = Describes the underside of the forelimb below the carpal joint.
Pellicle = The acellular membrane covering the enamel surface of the tooth.
Periosteum = The tough, fibrous covering of bone.
Physiology = The science of the functioning of living organisms.
Plantar = Describes the underside of the hindlimb below the tarsal joint.
Proximal = Towards the body.
Rostral = Towards the nose.
Rhinarium = The nose pad.
Sesamoid bone = A small bone that develops within a tendon to ease the passage over a joint.
Skeletal muscle = Muscle under voluntary control; thus also known as voluntary muscle.
Tendon = A band of fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching it to a bone.
Trabeculae = Dividing bands which hold functioning bone cells in position.
Trochanter = A bony prominence.
Trochlea = A groove for a pulley, usually a tendon
Tubercle = A small nodule or rounded prominence on a bone.
Tuberosity = An elevation or protuberance on a bone.
Ventral = Towards the abdomen.
Visceral = Pertaining to organs contained within the body cavities.
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