The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

Cartilage and Bone


  1. There are 4 types of tissue within the body: muscular, nervous, epithelial and connective. State which tissue type bone and cartilage belong to.
  2. Describe broadly the function of connective tissue.
  3. What is the name given to the intercellular material found among the cells of connective tissue?
  4. List the components of bone tissue.
  5. What is the name of the tough, fibrous tissue that covers all bones?
  6. Bones are comprised of many layers of tissue. What is the name given to such layers?
  7. What is the name given to spaces within the bone lamellae?
  8. Bones are classified according to their shape. List the 4 types and give an example of each.
  9. Name the 2 types of bone tissue. Where is each found?
  10. What is the name of the complex series of canals which permeate bone, containing blood and lymph vessels to maintain its nutrition?
  11. What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?
  12. What is the name given to the dividing bands which hold the functioning bone cells in position giving strength but without adding too much weight?
  13. Describe the composition of long bones.
  14. Describe the composition of flat and irregular bones.
  15. What is meant by a foramen or foramina?
  16. What is meant by a fossa?
  17. What is the difference between a condyle and an epicondyle?
  18. Describe cartilage.
  19. What are cartilage producing cells known as?
  20. Name the 3 different types of cartilage. Where in the body is each type found?
  21. Which is the strongest of the types of cartilage listed in your answer to Q20, and why?
  22. What is the term used to describe the development of bone?
  23. What are the 2 methods of ossification (bone formation)? Briefly describe each.
  24. What might endochondral ossification also be known as?
  25. Give an example of bones formed by intramembranous ossification.
  26. What is the area of bone development within the shaft of a bone called?
  27. What are the areas of bone development within the ends of a bone called?
  28. The developing diaphysis and epiphyses are separated by a strip of cartilage called the epiphyseal plate. This is where growth continues until the plate is obliterated by bone tissue, at which point the bone no longer increases in length. What is another name for the epiphyseal plate?
  29. The bone of a young animal is relatively smooth. Give 3 reasons why the bone of an elderly animal may show roughened areas.
  30. At what age might one expect completion of ossification in a small to medium sized dog?