The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

Muscles, Tendons & Ligaments


  1. Name the 3 types of muscle tissue and state where each is found.
  2. Describe the structure of skeletal muscle.
  3. What is another name for protraction?
  4. What is another name for retraction?
  5. What is meant by adduction?
  6. What is the main difference between isotonic and isometric contraction?
  7. What shape are smooth muscle cells?
  8. What shape are cardiac muscle cells?
  9. Name the 2 types of muscle fibre.
  10. How does a muscle physically contract?
  11. What is meant by a motor unit?
  12. How is skeletal muscle contraction controlled?
  13. What is meant by muscle tone?
  14. What is the difference between muscular atrophy and hypertrophy?
  15. What is the main difference between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles?
  16. Give 2 examples of movements controlled by intrinsic muscles.
  17. Give 3 examples of movements controlled by extrinsic muscles.
  18. List the 5 categories which together comprise the muscles of the head.
  19. List 4 movements controlled by the muscles of facial expression.
  20. List the 4 main muscles of mastication and state the function of each.
  21. What are the names of the muscles which allow dorsal, ventral and lateral movement of the eye?
  22. What is the function of the dorsal and ventral oblique muscles of the eye?
  23. What is the name of the muscle which enables the eye to be drawn back into its socket and moves the third eyelid?
  24. The muscles of the vertebral column are divided into 2 groups. Name them.
  25. List the 4 main structures to which the epaxial muscles are attached.
  26. Why are the epaxial muscles more bulky than the hypaxials?
  27. Name the muscles of the thorax which play an important role in respiration.
  28. The diaphragm separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity. Can you name the 3 parts of which it is comprised?
  29. List the 3 holes where structures are able to pass through the diaphragm. In addition to listing the holes, can you name the structure/s which pass through each?
  30. List the 4 muscles on each side of the body which together comprise the abdominal wall.
  31. What is the name of the area where the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles join at the ventral midline?
  32. Name the 4 main extrinsic muscles of the forelimb, and briefly describe the location and function of each.
  33. Name the 2 muscles of the shoulder.
  34. There are 2 muscles involved in the flexion of the elbow. Name them.
  35. What is the name of the muscle which extends the elbow joint?
  36. What 3 joints are affected by the hamstring muscle group?
  37. List the 3 members of the hamstring muscle group.
  38. What is the name of the muscle which extends the stifle?
  39. What is the main flexor muscle of the hock?
  40. What is the main extensor muscle of the hock?
  41. Name the 3 muscles which make up the adductor group on the inside of the thigh which hold the limb in towards the body?
  42. What is the difference between a ligament and a tendon?
  43. What is the name of the ligament which holds the head of the femur within the acetabulum?
  44. Name the ligaments which stabilise the stifle joint.
  45. What is the name given to a flat, fibrous sheet of tendon?
  46. Describe the location and composition of the Achilles tendon.
  47. Define the following: bursa, acquired bursa and synovial sheath.