The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

The Respiratory System


  1. Define respiration.
  2. What is the difference between internal and external respiration?
  3. By what other name may internal respiration be known?
  4. How much oxygen is present in inspired air?
  5. How much oxygen is present in expired air?
  6. How much carbon dioxide is present in inspired air?
  7. How much carbon dioxide is present in expired air?
  8. What is the name of the most prevalent gas present in air?
  9. List the components of the respiratory system.
  10. What is another name given to the nostrils?
  11. What is the name of the cartilaginous structure that divides the nasal chamber into two?
  12. Name the bones found within the nasal chamber and state their function.
  13. What is the name given to the area at the back of the mouth used by both the respiratory and digestive tracts?
  14. There are several openings into the pharynx; can you list them?
  15. What is the purpose of the paranasal sinuses found in the skulls of large herbivores?
  16. State the 2 functions of the larynx.
  17. What is the name of the structure that attaches the larynx to the skull and allows it to move back and forth like a swing?
  18. What is the name of the opening sited at the front of the larynx?
  19. The epiglottis is responsible for closing the glottis during swallowing. What is the epiglottis made of?
  20. Which of the following are the vocal cords: ligaments, tendons or muscles?
  21. What is the correct name for the windpipe?
  22. Describe the structure of the trachea.
  23. How many lung lobes does the dog possess?
  24. What is the name of the lobe present in the right lung lobe but not in the left?
  25. State the names of the lobes of the left lung.
  26. What is the function of the alveoli?
  27. In which of the body cavities are the lungs located?
  28. State the main muscles involved in inspiration.
  29. What is the name of the nerve that runs through the diaphragm?
  30. Expiration is generally passive and is caused by the relaxation of the external intercostals and diaphragm; which muscles are involved in cases of forced respiration?
  31. What are stretch receptors and where would you find them?
  32. What is the name of the reflex that controls the degree of inflation of the bronchial tree?
  33. What is Cheyne-Stokes reaction?
  34. State the normal respiratory rate range in cats and dogs.
  35. Why do miniature breeds of dog, puppies and kittens have a higher respiratory rate?
  36. State the pH of the blood. Why is this an important parameter in the subject of respiration?
  37. What is the function of the aortic and carotid bodies?
  38. What is meant by tidal volume?
  39. What is the name given to the extra air drawn into the lungs during a forced intake of breath?
  40. What is the inspiratory capacity?
  41. What is the name of the air left in the lungs following expiration?
  42. List 5 factors that may affect the vital capacity of the lungs (this is the total volume of the respiratory tract that can be used during respiration).
  43. What is the name given to the volume of air drawn in at each respiration that never reaches the alveoli?
  44. Give an example of increased functional dead space detrimental during general anaesthesia.
  45. Define the following: apnoea, dyspnoea, bradypnoea, tachypnoea and hyperpnoea.
  46. Define the following: hypoxia, asphyxia
  47. Give 4 examples of possible causes of dyspnoea.
  48. List the 4 most important considerations in the nursing of a dyspnoeic patient.