The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

The Special Senses


  1. List the special senses.
  2. What are the names of the bones located at the back of the nasal cavity, which are covered by a mucous epithelium housing the bipolar receptor cells of the olfactory system?
  3. Which of the cranial nerves is responsible for the sense of smell?
  4. List 6 parts of the anatomy that help to protect the eye from injury.
  5. What is meant by lacrimation?
  6. What is the name of the fibrous tissue of which the eyelids are made?
  7. What are the names of the angles where the upper and lower eyelids meet?
  8. What are the names of the glands whose ducts open onto the edge of the eyelid (these secrete a fatty material that contribute to the composition of tears)?
  9. Give another name for the eyelashes.
  10. The globe of the eye has 3 layers; describe them briefly.
  11. The outer layer of the eye comprises the sclera and the cornea. Which part gives the white colour of the eye?
  12. What is the name of the junction between the sclera and the cornea?
  13. The uvea (middle layer of the eye) comprises 5 structures. Can you list them and briefly state the function of each?
  14. How does the pupil differ in cats and dogs?
  15. Describe the 3 layers which make up the retina (inner layer of the eye).
  16. Describe the aqueous humour.
  17. Describe the vitreous humour.
  18. Describe in 6 brief steps how the eye functions.
  19. The ear is divided into 3 main parts. Can you name them?
  20. List the 3 components of the external ear.
  21. What do the ceruminous glands secrete?
  22. What is the correct name for the eardrum?
  23. What is the name of the passage where the external ear ends and the tympanic membrane lies across the entrance to the middle ear?
  24. What is the name of the air-filled space that is connected to the pharynx by the auditory tube and houses the middle ear?
  25. What is another name for the auditory tube?
  26. Name the 3 small bones that lie across the middle ear which serve to transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear.
  27. What is the collective name for the 3 small bones given in answer to Q26?
  28. In addition to the tympanic membrane, 2 other membranes are located within the middle ear. Can you name them?
  29. What is the name of the fluid that is found between the bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth of the inner ear?
  30. What is another name for the auditory nerve that carries nervous impulses from the inner ear to the brain?
  31. What is the name of the fluid that is found within the membranous labyrinth?
  32. The membranous labyrinth comprises 4 parts. Name them and briefly describe of each.
  33. What is the function of the crista located at each ampulla (at the base of the semicircular canal)?
  34. What are the receptors located within the utricle and saccule responsible for monitoring the position of the head known as?
  35. What is the function of the spiral organ (or organ of Corti) located within the cochlea?
  36. What is the medical name for the sensation of taste?
  37. What is the collective name given to the sensory nerve ending responsible for taste, and where are they located?
  38. List the cranial nerves that pass stimuli from the taste buds to the brain.