The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

General Nursing - Glossary

Anorexia = Reluctance to eat, inappetance.

Aspiration pneumonia = Acute condition caused by inhalation of material (e.g. food during syringe feeding) into the lungs.

Catheterization = The insertion of a catheter. Examples are urinary catheters, which are passed into the urinary bladder via the urethra, and intravenous catheters, which are passed into a vein.

Coupage = Percussion of the chest with cupped hands; used to encourage the coughing up of thoracic effusions.

Cystocentesis = Aspiration of urine from the urinary bladder via a needle inserted through the abdominal wall. The urine is drawn off with a syringe.

Decubitus ulcer = Bed sore; may affect the bony prominences of recumbent patients.

Dysphagia = Difficulty in swallowing.

Dyspnoea = Difficulty breathing.

Effluarage = Type of physiotherapy involving stroking movements to accustom the patient to touch in preparation for more intensive techniques.

Effusion = The escape of fluid into surrounding tissues or cavities.

Enema = Fluid or semi-solid introduced into the rectum; to promote evacuation of faeces, introduce contrast media for radiography or as a drug route.

Enteral = Within the gastro-intestinal tract; enteral diets are those taken by mouth or stomach tube.

Friction = Type of physiotherapy involving rhythmic, circular motions; aids absorption of local effusions and loosens scar tissue and adhesions.

Geriatrics = The branch of medicine dealing with the elderly and matters relating to them; particularly illnesses.

Gingivitis = Inflammation of the gums.

Hydrotherapy = Treatment of disease by means of water.

Hypermetabolism = The consumption of more energy than that provided by nutrition; body proteins are subsequently utilised as an energy source; autocannibalism.

Hyperphosphataemia = Abnormally high circulating phosphorous levels; this results in the subsequent increase in parathyroid hormone that may lead to renal rickets (rubber jaw).

Hypertension = Consistently high blood pressure measurements.

Hypostatic pneumonia = Fluid build up on the thorax of an animal in lateral recumbency for prolonged periods; caused by the compression of the underlying lung.

Inflammation = Local protective response resulting from injury to or destruction of tissue; characterised by heat, pain, redness and swelling.

Laryngitis = Inflammation of the larynx due to irritation or infection.

Micturition = Natural urination.

Neoplasia = Abnormal cell reproduction; growth of a tumour.

Oedema = Excessive fluid in the body tissues.

Orthopnoea = Difficulty breathing in recumbency.

Parenteral = Apart from the gastro-intestinal tract; parenteral nutrition is that taken by routes other than the alimentary canal (e.g. intravenous fluids).

Petrissage = Type of physiotherapy involving kneading or compression; used primarily on muscles.

Pharyngitis = Inflammation of the pharynx.

Pharyngostomy = Temporary opening into the pharynx; for insertion of a pharyngostomy tube.

Stomatitis = oral inflammation, usually caused by a bacterial infection.