The Revision Guide for Student Nurses (Part I)

Essential Nutrients


  1. List the 4 basic classes of macronutrients essential for the maintenance of health and activity in all living creatures.
  2. State the 2 basic classes of micronutrient essential for the maintenance of health and activity in all living creatures.
  3. What is the most important nutrient of all, and why?
  4. Describe the structure of proteins.
  5. List 6 functions of proteins.
  6. What is meant by essential amino acids?
  7. What is meant by non-essential amino acids?
  8. List the 10 essential amino acids for dogs and cats.
  9. State the amino acid essential only for cats. What might be caused by an inadequacy of this amino acid?
  10. What is meant by the biological value of a protein?
  11. Which foodstuff contains protein of the highest biological value?
  12. List 4 cases in which an animal would require a higher protein intake than usual.
  13. Describe the outcome of an excess in dietary protein.
  14. List 6 signs of protein deficiency.
  15. Describe the structure of fats.
  16. Describe the difference between saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  17. List the 4 main functions of fats.
  18. Why do cats require a dietary source of arachidonic acid?
  19. List 5 functions of the essential fatty acids.
  20. List 8 signs of essential fatty acid deficiency.
  21. What condition might arise as a result of excess dietary fat?
  22. State the 3 main groups of carbohydrates.
  23. What are the 2 main functions of carbohydrates?
  24. Why is dietary carbohydrate not usually essential?
  25. What is dietary fibre also known as?
  26. Give 3 examples of indigestible polysaccharides.
  27. Why is dietary fibre beneficial?
  28. A dog may survive on a diet of proprietary cat food, but cats must never be fed dog food. Why is this?